Below you will find PDF files of the didactic modules and background articles from the four content experts for the 2019 Getting SMART About Adaptive Interventions in Education Institute. Click on the links below to download.
Intro to Adaptive Interventions
Experimental Design for Adaptive Interventions
SMART Primary Data Analysis Part I
SMART Primary Data Analysis Part II
Advanced Topics in SMART Analysis and Design Part I
SMART Secondary Aim Data Analysis
Advanced Topics in SMART Analysis and Design Part II
SMART Case Studies
About the Instructors
Workshop Instructors include d3lab researchers, who focus on the development, application and dissemination of methods for building optimized adaptive interventions. In addition, the workshop includes Content Experts, who have experience in conducting research on adaptive interventions in education, and a Guest Speaker.
Dr. Almirall is Co-Principal Investigator of the Getting SMART research training institute and Co-Director of the Data-science for Dynamic Decision-making lab (d3lab) at the University of Michigan. An expert in causal inference and randomized trial design, he has over 10 years of experience training behavioral and education scientists on research methods for adaptive interventions, including the design, conduct and analysis of SMARTs.
Dr. Kasari studies the social and communicative abilities of children. Her research aims to develop novel, targeted interventions to improve social and communicative development in children with autism, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Dr. Kasari’s current research focuses on infants and toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), minimally verbal and highly verbal children with ASD, and children with complex neurodevelopmental disorders (Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Down syndrome). Interventions are mediated through therapists, teachers, paraprofessionals and parents and in community contexts, such as schools and homes. Much of her work focuses on under-represented populations in research (low income and minority children, girls with ASD, minimally verbal children), and she uses sophisticated intervention methodologies, such as sequential multiple assignment randomized trials (SMART designs) and community partnered participatory research methods (CPPR). The goal of this work is to determine the most effective interventions that can be deployed and sustained in the community.
Dr. Pelham has focused his research on ADHD in children and adolescents. His interests include treatment, development and evaluation, including behavioral treatments, pharmacotherapy, and the combination of the two. Most recently, the treatment research has concentrated more on dosing and sequencing in behavioral, pharmacological and combined interventions. In addition, Dr. Pelham studies the outcomes in adolescence and adulthood of ADHD children, focusing on multiple domains including substance use. His summer treatment program for ADHD children has been recognized by Divisions 53 and 37 of the APA and by CHADD as a model program, is listed on the SAMHSA NREPP list, and is widely recognized as the state of the art in treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD.
Dr. Roberts is Executive Director of the Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts, Associate Director of the Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk, and Director of the Dropout Prevention Institute. He currently serves on the National Planning Committee for the National Summit for Response to Intervention, as a member of the Board of Directors for the Capital School of Austin, and a member of the American Educational Research Association, American Evaluation Association, and American Psychological Association Society for Research on Educational Excellence. His current research focuses on learning disabilities, dropout prevention, and the impact of course examinations.
Dr. Nahum-Shani is Co-Principal Investigator of the Getting SMART research training institute and Co-Director of the Data-science for Dynamic Decision-making lab (d3lab) at the University of Michigan. Her research focuses on developing and employing behavioral theory and novel methodology to construct adaptive interventions, namely interventions that modify the type, timing, dose, or delivery mode of support in order to address the unique and changing needs of individuals. Her work is highly multidisciplinary, spanning behavioral, health, and applied psychology, while also being tightly integrated with advanced research methodology.
Dr. Gunlicks-Stoessel’s research focuses on understanding how attachment relationships during adolescence can promote healthy emotion regulation and wellbeing or contribute to the development of psychopathology. This work includes the development, implementation, and evaluation of interventions for adolescent depression that promote close attachment relationships. She also conducts research on the development of adaptive interventions, which provide clinical guidelines for selecting, combining, and sequencing interventions to personalize the intervention approach.
Dr. Brincks’ research centers on the use of complex statistical methods to address important scientific questions in the prevention of substance use and mental illness. She specializes in latent variable modeling and has expertise in longitudinal data analysis, hierarchical linear models, structural equation modeling, and the analysis of data from randomized clinical trials. Fascinated by heterogeneity in response to intervention, Dr. Brincks has spent her career trying to better understand how and for whom preventive interventions are effective. Her most recent work focuses on causal mediation analysis and the design and analysis of adaptive interventions and SMARTs.
Dr. Smith is an implementation scientist interested in developing adaptive implementation interventions. She has more than five years of experience training behavioral and clinical scientists in research methods for adaptive interventions, just-in-time adaptive interventions, and the design and analysis of clustered SMARTs and micro-randomized trials.
Veronica Fleury will be a Guest Speaker. An expert in the identification and validation of instructional strategies to address academic difficulties for young children with autism, she will provide an overview of adaptive interventions in education and describe her interests in developing an adaptive intervention for optimizing emergent literacy in children with autism.
What and Why?
What is an adaptive intervention?
Adaptive interventions use a sequence of decision rules that guide whether, how, or when—and, importantly, based on which measures—to make critical decisions about interventions in education settings. This includes whether, how or when to alter the dosage (duration, frequency, or amount), type, or delivery of interventions to students (or organizations). These interventions seek to address the individual and changing needs of students (or organizations) as they progress through an intervention.
What is a Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART)?
A SMART is a type of multi-stage, experimental design that was developed explicitly for constructing effective adaptive interventions. In a SMART, some or all participants are randomized multiple times over the course of the study. The multiple, sequential randomizations in a SMART enable researchers to efficiently address multiple scientific questions concerning the selection and individualization of intervention options at various decision points of an AI.
Why is this workshop needed?
Despite the critical role adaptive interventions already play (and will continue to play) in various domains of education, experimental research aiming to systematically optimize adaptive interventions in education is still in its infancy. SMARTs are experimental designs that enable scientists to address multiple scientific questions for optimizing a high-quality AI, but because SMARTs are relatively new, most educational researchers have not been exposed to them as part of their formal training. While research on AIs and SMART methods has grown significantly in the past few years, there is currently no comprehensive training in AIs and SMARTs in education. This workshop attempts to fill this gap.
2019 Scholars & Workshop Images
We would like to thank the Institute for Education Sciences, all of the administrators, content experts and scholars for a successful 2019 training institute!
2019 Scholar Biographies
2019 Scholar Biographies
Sarah Arden is a senior researcher in the Policy, Practice, & Systems Change program at AIR in the Special Education department. Arden earned a doctorate in Special Education from the University of Texas at Austin; with an emphasis on learning disabilities and behavior disorders.
Andrea Barton-Hulsey, Ph.D.
Andrea Barton-Hulsey is an assistant professor at Florida State University. Her research characterizes the linguistic skills children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) use for reading development, inclusive of those children with limited speech ability. Her work examines relationships between speech ability, vocabulary knowledge, receptive language and phonological awareness in order to design interventions to best support reading development for all children.
Julia Benoit, Ph.D.
A biostatistician/statistical scientist engaging in design of multidisciplinary research, Julia Benoit develops or enhances and applies existing or new methodology to help solve current and unforeseen data challenges in areas including clinical/epidemiological, basic science, behavioral, and educational research. Her statistical methodology research focuses on development of models to understand disease processes, using non-traditional approaches, to better understand disease progression when the true process may be unobservable.
Eunsoo Cho, Ph.D.
Eunsoo Cho is an assistant professor of Special Education and Educational Psychology at Michigan State University (MSU). Prior to coming to MSU, she was a postdoctoral researcher at the Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk at the University of Texas-Austin (2014 – 2016) and received her doctorate and master’s degrees in Special Education.
Jason Chow, Ph.D.
Jason Chow is an assistant professor at Virginia Commonwealth University. His research focuses on the relations between language ability and behavior problems in school-age children, the role of language in classroom and peer relationships, supporting teachers and related services providers implement effective behavior management practices, mathematics learning and intervention, and meta-analysis. He teaches classes in special education, grant writing, research design, and meta-analysis.
Carol Davis, Ed.D.
Carol Davis is a professor in Special Education at the University of Washington. Her work has focused on supporting teachers in using evidenced-based practices in the classroom. Her early work in validating interventions to support students with challenging behavior has led her to explore models, practices, and technology tools to support teachers in the implementation of these interventions in the classroom.
Jaclyn Dynia, Ph.D.
Jaclyn M. Dynia received her Ph.D. from The Ohio State University and is currently a senior research specialist at the Crane Center for Early Childhood Research and Policy. Currently, she is the PI on a project which aims to increase the language and literacy skills of children at high-risk for later reading delays.
Erica Edwards, Ph.D.
Erica B. Edwards, Ph.D. is an assistant professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Wayne State University. She studies socio-cultural factors in urban public schools that limit the educational opportunities of Black girls. Accordingly, her peer-reviewed work centers on Black girlhood, youth culture, and school discipline. Her ambition is to develop culturally relevant interventions to student/school conflict in urban turnaround contexts.
Roofia Galeshi, Ph.D.
Roofia Galeshi is an assistant professor in the College of Education and Human Development at Radford University. Her main focus of research is in assessment, evaluation, research methodologies, psychometrics, STEM education, instrument development, and diagnostic classification models (CDM). She has published articles using large datasets such as PIAAC.
Chanelle Gordon, Ph.D.
Chanelle Gordon is currently a postdoctoral associate in the Department of Counseling, School, and Educational Psychology at SUNY at Buffalo. Her research focuses on the experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as they transition to adulthood. She is interested in applying the SMART design to a school-based intervention that would foster adolescents’ self-management of their ADHD treatment.
Lauren Hampton, Ph.D, BCBA
Lauren Hampton, PhD, BCBA is a clinical research associate with the Early Intervention Research Group at Northwestern University. She is a board-certified behavior analyst with over 10 years of working with young children with autism and their families. Lauren is interested in customizing interventions for individual child and family characteristics, and in developing preventative intervention practices for children at risk for language delays and autism.
Bridget Hier, Ph.D., BCBA
Bridget Hier, Ph.D., BCBA is an assistant professor of school psychology at the University at Buffalo. Her primary area of research interest involves developing interventions to improve elementary-aged students’ writing skills, with a particular emphasis on identifying strategies that promote maintenance and generalization of intervention effects. Through Dr. Hier’s experimental intervention work, she critically examines theoretical models of skill development.
David Houchins, Ph.D.
David Houchins is a professor in the Department of Learning Sciences at Georgia State University. His areas of interest include juvenile justice reform, academic strategies and transition services for at-risk secondary youth with and without mild disabilities. He has been the principal investigator and co-principal investigator on IES, DOJ, and OSEP projects. He has numerous publications on academic instruction and professional development.
Hsien-Yuan Hsu, Ph.D.
Hsien-Yuan Hsu is an assistant professor in the Children’s Learning Institute at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. His research interests include multilevel modeling, structural equation modeling, and longitudinal data analysis. Dr. Hsu is also the methodologist for many large-scale IES funded research projects (e.g., R305A180406) that apply randomized controlled trials.
Angus Kittelman, Ph.D.
Angus Kittelman, Ph.D., is a postdoctoral researcher in the Educational and Community Supports (ECS) research unit at the College of Education at the University of Oregon. He conducts research in the areas of implementation science, positive behavior support, single case design and evaluation, and vocational rehabilitation.
Justin Lane, Ph.D.
Dr. Justin D. Lane is an assistant professor of Special Education in the Department of Early Childhood, Special Education, and Rehabilitation Counseling. His research focuses on designing and evaluating individualized interventions for young children with low-incidence disabilities. Specific areas of research include early social communication and peer-to-peer interactions.
Jill Locke, Ph.D.
Jill Locke, PhD, is a research assistant professor at the University of Washington. She received her PhD from UCLA and completed her postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Pennsylvania. Her research focuses on the: 1) implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism in real-world settings; and 2) factors that predict successful implementation of evidence-based practices in schools.
Paul Luelmo, Ph.D.
Paul Luelmo, Ph.D. is an assistant professor in the Department of Special Education at San Diego State University. His research focus is on serving low-resourced, racial and ethnic minority families in urban public schools. Dr. Luelmo’s Mexican-American background has helped him conduct research studies with an emphasis on cultural responsiveness. His research experience includes culturally sensitive autism interventions and parent advocacy in special education.
Melina Melgarejo, Ph.D.
Melina Melgarejo earned her doctorate degree in Education with an emphasis in Special Education, Disabilities, and Risk Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She is currently completing an IES-funded postdoctoral fellowship at San Diego State University and the Child and Adolescent Services Research Center focused on implementation science use of evidence-based practices for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; PIs: Stahmer/Suhrheinrich).
Nancy Nelson, Ph.D. NCSP
Nancy J. Nelson, Ph.D., NCSP, is a research assistant professor at the University of Oregon. She is a PI or Co-PI on fourteen externally funded projects to develop, implement, or evaluate math and reading interventions, including the National Center on Improving Literacy. Dr. Nelson’s expertise emphasizes the implementation of academic interventions and the use of data-based decision making in school systems.
Elise Pas, Ph.D.
Elise Pas, PhD, is an associate scientist at Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health in the Department of Mental Health. Her research focuses on the effectiveness, dissemination, and implementation of behavior, social, and emotional preventive interventions in schools, with a specific focus on coaching as a means for promoting teacher implementation evidence-based practices.
Jill Pentimonti, Ph.D.
Jill Pentimonti. Ph.D., is a principal researcher at the American Institutes for Research. She serves as Principal Investigator on two grants from the Institutes for Education Sciences (IES); an evaluation of a preschool classroom observation tool and an evaluation of a shared book-reading program in preschool classrooms. She also leads an internally-funded grant to evaluate Pennsylvania’s Early Multi-tiered Systems of Support in infant-toddler programs.
Jackie Relyea, Ph.D.
Jackie Eunjung Relyea is a postdoctoral research fellow at Harvard University. Her research focuses on investigating a content-area literacy intervention model for culturally and linguistically diverse students’ domain-specific knowledge, literacy, and engagement. Before joining Harvard, she held research positions at FPG Child Development Institute, MetaMetrics, and the University of Houston. She earned her Ph.D. in Literacy Education from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Ilene Schwartz, Ph.D.
Ilene Schwartz is a professor and Director of the Haring Center at UW. Dr. Schwartz is also the director of Project DATA, a school-based early behavioral intervention program for children with autism. She is dedicated to creating inclusive schools so that all children, regardless of their background or ability, can attend the school of their choice and receive a high quality education.
Wendy Shih, Ph.D.
Wendy Shih is an assistant professor in the School of Public Health and biostatistician for Center for Health Research – Research Consulting Group at Loma Linda University. She has been involved in several multi-site, randomized clinical trials in ASD research. Her interests include intervention study design and analysis, statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal and clustered data, machine learning techniques, and understanding treatment mechanisms.
Stephanie Shire, Ph.D.
Stephanie Shire is an assistant professor in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education at the University of Oregon. Her research interests focus on the community partnered development, adaptation, and real world effectiveness of interventions for children with autism by applying effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs and SMART designs to examine clinically relevant questions regarding sequence, implementation, and intervention effectiveness.
Michael Siller, Ph.D.
Michael Siller is an associate professor of Pediatrics at Emory University, and Co-Director of the Education Sciences Research Core at Marcus Autism Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta. He has completed two clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of a parent-coaching intervention, and aims to develop, evaluate, and implement community-viable educational innovations for children, adolescents, and young adults with autism in Georgia and beyond.
Michael Toland, Ph.D.
Michael Toland’s general training involves research design and statistics, with particular specialties in multilevel and IRT analysis. As a quantitative researcher, it is a goal of his to collaborate with colleagues studying important education problems involving children and youth with disabilities. He serves as Co-PI on five federally funded grants involving children and youth with Autism, ADHD, and disabilities, in general.
Cheryl Varghese, Ph.D.
Cheryl Varghese is a research scientist and the Intervention Director of the Targeted Reading Intervention, a Tier 2 reading program implemented in schools. Her work primarily focuses on individualizing reading interventions for young struggling readers and building teachers’ capacity through literacy coaching professional development models. Her work is also focused on improving aspects of classroom ecologies such as teacher-child interactions.
Kelly Williams, Ph.D.
Kelly Williams is an assistant professor of Special Education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Indiana University. Kelly completed her Ph.D. at the University of Texas at Austin under the advisement of Dr. Sharon Vaughn. Her research focuses on reading interventions for adolescents with reading difficulties and disabilities, including students who are English Learners, and preventing dropout with at-risk populations.
This training institute is supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant Number R324B180003 to the Regents of the University of Michigan.